Friday, March 13, 2020
Titanic Outline,Paper& Essays - Canada, United Kingdom, Free Essays Titanic Outline,Paper& Bibliography Outline In retrospect, blame for the sinking of the Titanic can be placed on the inferior materials used by the ship builder, the misled motivation of Captain Smith and the White Star Line, and the poor emergency provisions and procedures. I. Situations surrounding the sinking of Titanic A. Who operated the Titanic B. Events of April C. Extent of loss II. Titanic sets sail A. Description of ship 1. Ship builder 2. Materials used 3. Outfitting the ship B. The maiden voyage III. The iceberg A. False sense of security by crew B. The sighting C. The correction D. The hit IV. Saving the passengers A. Women and children B. First class passengers C. Other class passengers V. In retrospect A. Causes of the disaster Titanic - The Ship of Destiny The Royal Mail Ship Titanic, better known as the RMS Titanic, was the second Olympic-class ship built by the White Star Line. She was built between the years of 1909 and 1911 and was touted as unsinkable by her owners and the press because of her watertight compartments. The RMS Titanic left Great Britain on her maiden voyage on April 10, 1912 under the command of Captain Edward J. Smith. On the night of Sunday, April 14, at 11:40 p.m., the ship struck an iceberg. Of the 2,227 passengers on board, only 705 survived. The White Star Line was owned by J.P. Morgan, an American financier, at the time of the Titanic disaster. Morgan purchased the company in 1902 from J. Bruce Ismay who retained the titles of Directorship and Chairman and Managing Director of the company. When J. Bruce Ismay . . . picked out her name, he had no idea how famous it would become. He named the ship Titanic. (RMS Titanic) What was to be the greatest ship in the world would become one of the greatest tragedies the world had seen. In retrospect, blame for the sinking of the Titanic can be placed on the inferior materials used by the ship builder, the misled motivation of Captain Smith and the White Star Line, and the poor emergency provisions and procedures. The White Star Line contracted with a ship building company named Harland and Wolff to build the grandest ship in the world. The ship was designed by the White Star Line to be a marvel of modern of safety technology. Titanic was 883 feet long, 92 feet wide, and weighed 46,328 tons. She was 104 feet tall from keel to bridge, almost 35 feet of which were below the waterline. She had four smoke stacks, one of which was a dummy stack simply used to increase the impression of her gargantuan size. She had a double hull of one-inch-thick steel plates and a system of sixteen watertight compartments, sealed by massive doors that could be instantly triggered by a single electric switch on the bridge. Electric water sensors could also activate these doors. Her accommodations were the most modern and luxurious on any ocean. The Titanic's amenities included electric lights and heat in every room, electric elevators, a swimming pool, a squash court, a Turkish Bath, a gymnasium with a mechanical horse and mechanical camel to keep riders fit, and staterooms and first class facilities that would rival the best hotels in the world. A six-story, glass-domed grand staircase led first class passengers to a sumptuous dining room where they would enjoy the best cuisine. Even the third class (steerage) cabins were more luxurious than the first class cabins on some lesser steamships. The original design of the Titanic called for 32 lifeboats. The White Star Line management felt that the boat-deck would look cluttered and reduced the number to 20, which would provide a total lifeboat capacity of around 1,178. This actually exceeded regulations of the time, even though Titanic was capable of carrying over 3500 passengers. On April 10, 1912, the Titanic set sail for New York on her maiden voyage. She would stop at Cherbourg, France and Queenstown, Southern Ireland before heading across the Atlantic Ocean. Over the next three days, it was a regular voyage with passengers of all classes enjoying the luxury of the Titanic. Captain Smith, Bruce Ismay of the White Star Line, and Thomas Andrews of Harland and Wolff walked around the ship noting any flaws. Titanic's maiden voyage was to be Captain Smith's
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Marketing Plan - Term Paper Example The organization has selected Stockholm as their business operation area. Stockholm is one of the leading historical area enrich with numerous business hubs and colleges. The city is famous for its emerging wine and food market. Most significantly several popular restaurants and wine bar are operating within this competitive and potential market place. Seeing these favorable factors, the organization is trying to establish their business in Stockholm. Moreover, several favorable aspects like high disposable income of people, favorable social tradition, economic development, political stability, availability of advanced technology and resources have encouraged the organization to enter in the business field. The organization is trying to achieve competitive advantages through effective product differentiation strategy and sustainable business operation. The aim of the study is to reveal the potential business opportunities for the particular business venture. The marketing plan includ es situation analysis, business objectives and goals, target market analysis, a marketing mix frame work. The strategic plans have implemented in this study to achieve the business objectives. Finally, the study will locate implementation and control of the stated objectives. Situation Analysis An internal situation analysis has been provided in this study. SWOT Analysis This strategic analytical tool will determine Finch Wine BarÃ¢â¬â¢s internal strengths, weaknesses and external opportunities, threats. A summarized table of SWOT analysis has been provided in the appendix part. Strengths The business operation place is the most crowded place in the country. Skilled management team and differentiated product range will help the organization to create a potential customer base. Availability of several international and domestic wines will increase the core competency of the wine bar. Effective customer service and closed-line product and service technology will bring efficiency in the business process. Significant waste management system and water recycle facility are the most significant strengths of this organization. It will help to increase the brand reputation of the organization. Weaknesses Lack of brand awareness in the mind of the customers is one of the greatest weaknesses of the organization. Lack of sufficient resources at initial stage of business operation will limit the organization to achieve significant business output. Lack of effective relationship with distributors and suppliers can affect the supply chain management process of the organization. Opportunities The Swedish market is potential for wine bar business. Recently Sweden has joined WTO that will increase the business activities. Festive seasons and favorable location will help the organization to more number of customers. High disposable income of people and technological development of the nation will encourage the organization to undertake aggressive business strategy. Threats The Swedish wine bar market is highly competitive due to presence of several potential Organizations. Several political threats including licensing problem can affect the business Process of Finch wine bar in near future. Recent economic recession and European financial crisis has affected restricted the buying decision of middle class people. Now-a-days, the tendency of Swedish people is changing towards the healthy drinks and green tea consumption. Focus and Goal Settings Business
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Cheyenne Native Americans - Research Paper Example The paper tells that the Cheyenne comprise of two tribes i.e. the TsÃ ©tsÃ ªhÃ ©stÃ ¢hese and the SÃ ³'taeo'o. Members of the Algonquian family had a common territory (present-day Saskatchewan province) and language.Ã However, in the mid 16th century, they began their southwestward migration in pursuit of buffaloes and game. However, prior to this, the Cheyenne resided alongside the Missouri River in Minnesota. There is evidence that they were ardent farmers who also made ceramics and artifacts. After losing a battle with the Hidatsa and Mandan tribes, they were driven off to the plains. This is when they took up buffalo hunting and occupied the area that comprises of modern-day Wyoming, Kansas, Colorado, Nebraska and South Dakota. Consequently, their housing units changed from earthen lodges to Ã¢â¬ËtipisÃ¢â¬â¢, temporary houses made of buffalo hide. This tribe was further subdivided into ten bands and four leaders were appointed from each band. In addition, there was a council of elders that comprised of forty-four elected men. The council convened on a regular basis to deliberate on tribal affairs. Authority was deeply centralized, and the Cheyenne people were united by ritual ceremonialism and the famous Ã¢â¬ËSun DanceÃ¢â¬â¢ was the main climax. Ã¢â¬ËSacred arrowsÃ¢â¬â¢ was another ceremonial ritual and this was undertaken whenever the Cheyenne people waged tribal war. The Cheyenne have a rich cultural heritage which is characterized by religious beliefs, ceremonies, religious practitioners, traditional medicine and veneration of the dead. Aside from the sun dance and arrow dance, there are three other significant ceremonies. These include Mahut renewal, Isiwun and animal dance. Death and life are deemed a spiritual process. A good life automatically results in a good death. Conversely, an evil life leads to malevolent spirits who are bound to torment the living. Hence, the Cheyenne really advocate for a good life. Indian tribes includin g the Cheyenne welcomed the European settlers into America and even taught them survival tactics. Unfortunately, this cordiality was short-lived and the White settlers began to acquire their land. Initially, this was done via treaties but with time the Cheyenne were forcefully evicted from their territories. They were driven off to barren land that was unwanted by the European settlers. As stated above, treaties were the initial means of acquiring Native American territorial land. One famous treaty is the 1851 Laramie Treaty. The Cheyenne were represented in this treaty between US government representatives and Native American tribes. Several resolutions were made and they include the following. First, a truce was reached between warring rival tribes. Secondly, each tribe was to receive $50,000 per annum for 10 years as compensation for their land. Third, the US government gained the right to build infrastructure on native land. The white settlers were also assured of peace when the y traveled along the Overland Trail. Fourth, maps were demarcated to show areas where the tribes were allowed to hunt and fish. Subsequent treaties had well-established reservations for Indian tribes. The mid-seventeenth century was characterized by massive immigration of European settlers into America.
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Market Segmentation Essay A definition of market segmentation is groups of potential buyers that have two things in common, similar needs and a reaction to the marketing strategy. (Kerin, 188) There are four different segments to the market. They are geographic area, demographic focus, psychographic referring to lifestyle and behavioral which refers to where the person makes purchases, what they are looking for, how often they shop, and their reason for purchasing. Kerin, 193) A definition of target market is one or more groups of consumers that a company uses for purposes of market focus. The five criteria for selecting a target segment are, market size, growth expectation, competitive position, cost associated with reaching the segment, and compatibility with the objectives and resources of the organization. (Kerin, 198-199) where a target market is groups selected for company focus, market segmentation is used to divide potential buyers into more specific groups. The statement, Ã¢â¬Å" Sometimes a firm can achieve a key differential advantage by simply emphasizing how its offering satisfies existing consumer demands/desires and needs better than its competitorsÃ¢â¬ can be very true in that a company can use what is already known about their customer base to identify their products best focus group. Companies can use this advantage to instill positive feeling about their products to their already existing customer base as well as competitor clientele. A marketing strategy called product repositioning can help a company to change the importance or usefulness of a product in a consumers mind in comparison to a competitor product. A company will use head to head positioning (pg. 202) in order to compete with suppliers of similar products. An example of this type of positioning is Pepsi vs. Coke. These two companies sell soda that the attempt to convince theirs and the opposing companies customers of buying. An example of a company, product, and positioning strategy is Splash Lagoon Water Park in Erie, PA. This company operates as an indoor water park resort type facility and serves mostly families with young children. They offer entertainment such as water slides, a wave pool, arcade, and laser tag. Their value to the consumer is advertised through television, internet, direct mailings, and word of mouth. They have nearby a competitor in Castaway Bay Water Park, which is owned by Geauga Lake, located in Ohio. Both of these companies offer similar product offerings and amenities. Splash Lagoon uses a head to head marketing approach in offering competitive rates, coupons, group discounts, and hotel accommodations much like that of its Castaway Bay competitors. Referring to the concept called managing the product life cycle, the statement, Ã¢â¬Å"Sometimes demand patterns must be modified for consumers to perceive a firms product differentiation as worthwhile. Ã¢â¬ This is seen in a variety of products offered from many different companies. Many companies will attempt to re-gain a consumers interest in a product or line by changing the formula or offering a different look for the packaging. Often times the familiarity of a certain product to a customer can cause them to overlook it when new and more appealing products enter the market. Many companies also add other products from their line in combination with a product to increase brand recognition. An example of a modification in managing the product life cycle is the Mr. Clean Magic eraser. The product has a very large consumer popularity. There are now many other companies manufacturing the same type of product and offering it for a lower cost. The Magic Eraser was improved by the company by giving several different options available. The original brand product is still available in addition to larger versions of the same product, multi pack options, and recently marketed a bathroom specific eraser product containing Febreeze cleaning solution to increase consumer interest.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Developing an eBusiness Our Service PittsburghModel.com ( www.andrew.cmu.edu/~jrahimi/start.html ) is a database of men, women and children who are interested in modeling assignments in the Pittsburgh and surrounding areas. Some are professional models and others are either looking to make some extra money doing promotional work or are hoping to be discovered. Pittsburghmodel.com serves as an intermediary between agencies and aspiring models. The actual service we are selling works both ways. We are providing aspiring models with a hassle-free approach to becoming discovered while providing local modeling agencies with access to aspiring models, thus granting them more exposure. Referral fees and contract negotiations will be our major sources of revenue, and advertising on our web site will be our secondary source of revenue. PittsburghModel.com is the only web site of its kind in the Pittsburgh Area. Although there are thousands of modeling web sites on the Internet where one can submit pictures and profiles in order to be considered for modeling, PittsburghModel.com is different. We take into account that modeling is a very personal process, thus, our services are targeted for a local market, where we can build lasting relationships with our models and agencies. The fact that we are only working with aspiring models in the Western Pennsylvania area will make our business and services very exclusive. Models that submit their profile onto our web site will be treated as individuals, not statistics, and since we are putting forth a personal approach with our models, they will have confidence and trust in PittsburghModel.com. We generally accept men and women of all weights and heights as well as children of all ages. What most people don't realize is that there are modeling opportunities for everyone. Our potential customers are men, women, and children that are either professional models looking for more exposure, or aspiring models that want to give a shot at modeling. The fact that this is a hassle free environment, our primary customers will be aspiring models. On the other side of our business will be the local modeling agencies. We will work with all of the major agencies in Pittsburgh and guarantee them more exposure and access to models, in return for a referral fee and future contract negotiation fees. Each model has at least one picture and a profile which includes all of the model's vital information as well as other information about availability, experience and interests.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Harmonizing Research, Practice, and Policy in Early Childhood Music: A Chorus of International Voices (Part 2) Lori A. Custodero & Lily Chen-Hafteck a b a b Music and Music Education program at Teachers College, Columbia University Music Department, Kean University, New Jersey Version of record first published: 07 Aug 2010. To cite this article: Lori A. Custodero & Lily Chen-Hafteck (2008): Harmonizing Research, Practice, and Policy in Early Childhood Music: A Chorus of International Voices (Part 2), Arts Education Policy Review, 109:3, 3-8 To link to this article: http://dx. doi. org/10. 3200/AEPR. 109. 3. 3-8PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE Full terms and conditions of use: http://www. tandfonline. com/page/terms-and-conditions This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publis her does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae, and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources.The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material. Copyright Ã © 2008 Heldref Publications Harmonizing Research, Practice, and Policy in Early Childhood Music: A Chorus of International Voices (Part 2) LORI A. CUSTODERO and LILY CHEN-HAFTECK EditorÃ¢â¬â¢s note. Lori A. Custodero and Lily Chen-Hafteck served as guest editors for both Part 1 and Part 2 of the special issue International Policies on Early Childhood Music Education: Local and Global IssuesRevealed. n the November/December 2007 issue of Arts Education Policy Review, readers were introduced to e arly childhood music policies in Brazil, England, Kenya, Puerto Rico, South Africa, and the United States. In this collection, a second ensemble of experts from Australia, China, Denmark, Korea, Israel, and Taiwan joins them. Like the previous issue, these authors presented papers or workshops at an International Society for Music Education, Early Childhood Music Education Seminar in Taipei in 2006 and wrote new articles for inclusion here.They responded to the same charge as the previous authors to answer the following questions: Ã¢â¬ ¢ What policies currently exist in your country for early childhood music education? Ã¢â¬ ¢ To what extent do these policies meet the needs of children in your country? Ã¢â¬ ¢ How are teachers prepared to teach early childhood music in your country? Ã¢â¬ ¢ In what ways do local and global cultures figure into the policies and practices of early childhood music in your country? Additionally, we offered the following questions, to be addressed at th e authorÃ¢â¬â¢s discretion: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Do different musical cultures require different instructional approaches?And, conversely, are certain music instructional approaches culture specific? How does this impact policy and practice of early childhood music in your country? Ã¢â¬ ¢ What are the potential risks and rewards of mandating multicultural musical experiences for young children? Finally, we asked authors to address any issues specific to their regions and to make concrete suggestions regarding policy for their countries. Salient themes emerged addressing what was taught and who was responsible for that content.In many ways these two conditions are inseparable, interrelated through the social nature of musical experiences. In these accounts, we also see ways in which content and delivery shape reception and how that process, in turn, defines and is defined by culture. Examining these geographical contexts raises questions about atti- I tudes, practices, and policies concerning early childhood music education that have significance for many of us. We chose three threads of inquiry from the many that weave these single texts into a textual fugue: (a) ensions between child and adult culture; (b) competing influences by global, regional, and local agencies on standards and curricula; and (c) expectations for teacher knowledge and preparation. Competing Cultures: Child and Adult The existence of a musical culture in early childhood, which is distinctly different from the adult culture, is based on studies showing similarities of vocal contours used in communication between infants and mothers across cultures (Papousek 1996), as well as research regarding the differences between music made by children and adults (e. . , Bjorkvold 1992; Campbell 2007; Littleton 1998; Marsh 1995; Moorhead and Pond 1941). Sven-Erik HolgersenÃ¢â¬â¢s article on early childhood music in Scandinavia describes practices in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway that are sensitive to the childÃ¢ â¬â¢s culture. The cultural clash in those regional systems exists between programs that favor an elemental or natural approach to education for the young based on the free play aesthetic and those that see music Vol. 109, No. 3, January/February 2008 3 as a mode of artistic expression requiring learned skills.Lily Chen-Hafteck and Zhoyua Xu and, separately, Jennifer Chau-Ying Leu found preschools in Chinesespeaking countries to have a strong sense of adult culture. Most parents and teachers believe school should stress academic learning rather than play, so that children can achieve high scores on tests and examinations. Chinese culture also stresses study and hard work as important for academic success. In Korea, Nam-Hee Lim and Shunah Chung found that adults believe young children need close supervision and guidance from teachers and parents in their development.Therefore, childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s natural tendency to be playful and creative is not recognized as a core value in school; potential for future success drives decisions. These cultural differences are interactive with and reflective of current conditions and regional history. In China, for example, books were printed with movable type as early as the eighth century, whereas in Europe copies were still drawn by hand until the 1400s. Such a long history of text accessibility elevated reading and writing to a valued skill that was recognizable and sought (Smith 1991).Societal values may offer another lens to interpret early academic emphasis, such as those espoused by Confucius, for whom morality and caring for others, especially family, were primary. In terms of contemporary conditions, Louie Suthers of Australia notes that in her varied country one can see differences in starting ages of pre-primary education. In Denmark, the children start at three years of age and continue for four years. In China, pre-primary education starts at four years of age and continues for three years, although care is availa ble in each country mentioned from birth.Also of note, the average student teacher ratio in China is 28:1, differing from Hong KongÃ¢â¬â¢s average ratio of 16:1. The older starting age in China may perpetuate (or reflect interest in) the schooling culture. LeuÃ¢â¬â¢s discussion of the importance of family context is relevant to this point, inasmuch as it may provide the space for child culture 4 Arts Education Policy Review to flourish while adult culture is operating at school. Claudia Gluschankof writes about the purposeful creation of materials for the child culture with the development of the New Hebrew Culture in the Israeli territories during the early 1900s.Preschools were created based on the Froebel playcentered model and provide an unusual case in the concentrated production of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s music in a language that had no such repertoire prior to the kindergartens establishment. The conscious choice to provide young children with cultural tools for understanding a t the earliest stages of a community is reminiscent of Sheila WoodwardÃ¢â¬â¢s discussion concerning the importance of children in nation building in South Africa, featured in the previous issue of this journal.In her conclusion, Gluschankof raises important questions concerning this created canon of songs and the lack of repertoire for Arab-speaking children. Using the idea of child culture as a lens for viewing cultural and educational policies provides a useful way to understand differences and similarities in political systems that define the worlds in which we teach, research, and cohabitate. Such understanding may lead to more focused and meaningful questions that may reveal inequities or alternative directions in music education worthy of exploration.Considerations of these policies regarding conceptions of adulthood and childhood lead directly to curricular influences that we view from a related dialectic: the local and global. Local and Global Influences: Child and World I n the first part of this symposium, we focused on the tension between small and large scaled views of what should be taught, each serving a different societal need. In the second part, we speak more specifically to the notion of a national curriculum because it is mentioned in each of the articles collected here.We are interested in questions dealing with how these personal and collective influences affect childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s music education: Ã¢â¬Å"Does governmentmandated standardized curriculum limit possibilities or insure access of quality to all children? Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"What is the exemplar to which music education should be standardized? Ã¢â¬ The first question is meant to generate critical thinking regarding what and how policymakers might send messages about music education in the early years; the second is meant to question assumptions we might have surrounding best practice and the cultural nuances that shape it.Suthers, discussing AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s situation, is min dful that there is no national music curriculum for pre-primary school and points to a recent reform movement in music education that excluded early childhood experiences. She notes that this leaves teachers feeling isolated and that their work is undervalued. Alternatively, Gluschankoff discusses the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s music written in Hebrew as somewhat ideological and makes suggestions for addressing the inclusion of additional materials to meet the needs of a multicultural society.One of the ways in which the national curriculum may become nationalistic is in the mandates or recommendations around singing repertoire. The role played by singing in socialization is significant and has been used for centuries to transmit cultural values, to teach language, and to establish qualities of rhythmic energy that typify a way of being; Dissanayake (2000) makes the case for mutuality and belonging as ways the arts are meaningful to us.Inasmuch as collective singing creates a sense of belong ing, we have a responsibility to monitor the ways in which we look at the child and the world (see LeuÃ¢â¬â¢s article describing ecological systems and Lim and Chung on the supportive role of adults). Chen-Hafteck and Xu also write about the importance of family singing and the differing role of school music. When local knowledge is replaced by chauvinism, music can be decontextualized. Because musicality is deeply rooted in shared experience, (Trevarthen 1999) we need to guard the personal and not expose childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s vulnerability to politicization.Our concern regarding global trends also involves the perception that globalization means movement toward Downloaded by [Macquarie University] at 14:58 28 March 2013 Western ideals. Attention to the local, once again, is necessary to adequately implement any change. In China, for example, although the new educational policies follow the global trends rhetorically, espousing learning through play and stressing personal expression a nd creativity, its usefulness is severely hampered by conflicting views in the local tradition regarding a deep belief in academic success as the consummate benchmark.Holgerson considers a similar dissonance between local needs and governmental responsibility to all children through the philosophical lens of Bildung, a generative model that keeps the questions about such disconnections at the forefront of practice. Downloaded by [Macquarie University] at 14:58 28 March 2013 Teacher Knowledge: Child and Music Practice policies are perhaps best viewed vis-a-vis teacher preparationÃ¢â¬â what do we value as knowledge? For most of us, early childhood musical practice involves understanding as much as we can about children while keeping the cultural context in mind.This might include individual experiences that contribute to their uniqueness and developmental trends that might give indications about what to expect in terms of maturation. What knowledge do we need of music? In this issu e, the authors discuss the importance of a diverse and culturally responsive repertoire, singing range, quality of recordings, appropriate use of instruments, and sound sensitivity. In this collection of articles, the authors suggest that these two knowledge areas are rarely considered together and that they exist in bifurcation, at least conceptually.Across the globe, there are those who are considered to have knowledge of the child in context (families or generalist teachers) and those who have knowledge of the child in music (specialists). Holgersen describes this dichotomy in practical termsÃ¢â¬âmusic activities and music teaching. The goals of using music are indeed varied and the complexity of music leads to multiple possibilities worthy of exploration. Among the authors there is a consensus concerning the need for collaboration between the two areas of expertise with several concrete recommendations.Reasons for this common phenomenon center on the systems in place for teac her preparation and the institutional divisions of disciplines; authors advocate for more carefully structured professional development to help bridge the disciplinary divide. Knowing the body of work of these authors, we are familiar with their efforts to form partnerships with local child care specialists and have been involved with such partnerships at our universities. Child and Adult It is noteworthy that many of the responses are about memories of musical adults who were influential in their music education.Graham Welch (pers. comm. ) offers: I was educated in a Church of England Primary school in London . . . where we sang, often with the local Vicar leading on the piano. I can remember his enthusiasm, quick tempo and intensity of keyboard playing. F or most of us, early childhood musical practice involves understanding as much as we can about children while keeping the cultural context in mind. We believe them to be some of the most meaningful opportunities for our own teach er knowledge.Policy and Personal Voice In addition to the authors featured here, to inform our sense of the historical significance of current situations regarding early childhood music and the breadth to which our profession defines policy, we asked our colleagues involved in international musical education about their memories of early childhood music education and their relationship to policy with the following questions: 1. Reflecting on your childhood before age eight, what were the influences of policy on your music education? . How does this compare with todayÃ¢â¬â¢s situation for young children? Responses were varied and provided insight through a self-reflective lens. We looked at the seven responses regarding their relatedness to our three topics and to how policy can reach us as individuals in a long-lasting way. Alda Oliveira (pers. comm. ) from Brazil also reflected on a teacher: The first time I went to school I was seven years old. At this age I choose to take piano lessons with a private piano teacher.She was a marvelous teacher since her method included not only playing by reading and singing the notes, but also playing by ear and some popular songs. Family members had a strong musical presence in June Boyce TillmanÃ¢â¬â¢s (pers. comm. ) childhood in England: Ã¢â¬Å"My music was regularly singing with and listening to the playing of my paternal grandfather who was the village dance band pianist. Ã¢â¬ Margre van Gestel (pers. comm. ) of The Netherlands also wrote of related experiences: I had the privilege to be surrounded by a musical family.We had a piano in our home and I spent lots of time behind the piano in my grandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s house. My uncles and aunts could play the piano and as a child I enjoyed listening to them. One of my aunts was the ballet teacher in the village and from the age of four I was in her dancing classes. It was normal in my family to sing and play. My father had a good voice and was a soloist in the church c hoir when he was young; he played the clarinet and was a folkdance Vol. 109, No. 3, January/February 2008 5 teacher during scouting activities.I guess my days were filled with (live) music, not in courses but just all day long. Van Gestel shared a record of family influence: In my baby dairy, when I was 8 months old, my mother wrote: Ã¢â¬Å"Today she clapped her hands. She probably learned that from her grandmother! When you sing Clap your hands she reacts immediately. Ã¢â¬ One year old: Ã¢â¬Å"When we sing Oh my daddy (a popular song in the sixties) she sings along, Ã¢â¬Ëdaddy, daddy. Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ In South Africa, apartheid led to decisions about schooling for Caroline Van Niekerk (pers. omm. ) that indirectly influenced her musical education by removing her from the direct influences of the national educational system of that time. She also spoke of a contemporary situation in which fighting governmental policies was necessary and of the strength we have to overcome questi onable decisions: I had a desperate call just yesterday from someone with a story of how their education faculty, in training teachers for the Foundation Phase, wants to remove music as an optional area of specialization for students.We are now all doing everything in our power to protest such a prospect loudly. But I have also seen what I regard as a promising development, and similar to the situation I witnessed in California when we lived there, more than twenty years agoÃ¢â¬âas parents of young children realize that the formal education system is not necessarily going to provide their children with what they believe is important, and especially as regards the arts, including music, they start to take responsibility for those things themselves. ntil I was about [age] five) could not get my lessons paid for. Had the place still be in that county I would have been entitled to a bursary to pay for lessons and I would have been able to learn a second instrument. But without that m y parents could only afford piano lessons. I am still sad about this, which was simply a matter of geography and the local control of resources. Child and Music The same issues featured authors raised are apparent in the additional professionalsÃ¢â¬â¢ responses: the lack of resources and teachers. Gary McPherson (pers. comm. links personal memories with policies, of which he sees little change, from his Australian childhood: I have a vague memory of singing in a school choir that was [led] by a general classroom teacher when I was about six or seven, but the group was nothing special so it had no impact on my subsequent musical development. . . . I went back some years ago and had a look at the way music was described in the school curriculum (particularly primary school curriculum). There were all sorts of aids and resources for general primary teachers to use but music wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t typically taught well in schools.To be honest, IÃ¢â¬â¢m not sure the status of music in the cur riculum is any different. Downloaded by [Macquarie University] at 14:58 28 March 2013 These testimonies to strong and positive adult influence suggest that family education is important, as Leu and others advocate in this symposium, with the caveat that the experiences described are with adults perceived as musicians. This suggests we need to exercise caution in defining people in terms of limited musicality and that music education of our children means their children will be better educated.It is interesting that teachers were remembered for the affective qualities they conveyed and through a curricular stance that was relevant to the child. Child and World The relationships among local, state, and global influences are also reflected in these personal accounts. Many of these music professionals took private music lessons and considered their experiences to be nonpolicy driven. Oliveira (pers. comm. ) mentioned the involvement of musicians in music education policyÃ¢â¬âspecific ally, the Canto Orfeonico policy under the leadership of composer Villa-Lobos.She recalls that this policy influenced her school education, which included Ã¢â¬Å"group singing and elementary level music theory. Ã¢â¬ As already discussed, group singing is a common vehicle for politicization. Like GluschonkofÃ¢â¬â¢s report of Israeli songs contributing to nation-building, Boyce Tillman (pers. comm. ) noted that: At [age] seven I went to a school where we had massed singing in the Hall when we sang British folksongs, many of which I still know by heart. We had a book called the New National Song book, which was a deliberate attempt after the war to restore a sense of nationhood.This was used throughout my school career. 6 Arts Education Policy Review Welch wrote of intersecting influences of church and state: I discovered later that the London County Council was very supportive of music in schools generally, although my local experiences as a child were as much to do with the link to the Church and the established ethos of including singing as a natural part of the school day. Ana Lucia Frega (pers. comm. ) describes a similar situation in her native Argentina. Early childhood music courses were not always taught by a specialist . . . his means that some problems arose: some of the K-general teachers [choose materials that] do not really fit the [appropriate] children range of voices, and which tend to create vocal difficulties. He notes the longevity of such a workable match: Ã¢â¬Å"On returning to the school many years later for my first teaching post, I discovered that the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s policy toward music had continued, with the same range of events and activities in place. Ã¢â¬ In the previous issue, Young discussed the unprecedented commitment England has made to the artsÃ¢â¬âspecifically music, a commitment Welch reiterates.Boyce Tillman recalls a time when the resources from the national government were in local hands, resulting in inequitabl e opportunity: At [age] seven I started piano lessons but because the place we lived in was then in Southampton and not in the County of Hampshire (to which we are very close and in which we had been Although our policymaking systems move slowly, and are not always moving in the direction we would like, there is hope in the growing numbers of people who care about music education. Oliviera writes: Ã¢â¬Å"at least we can feel the difference between my generation and todayÃ¢â¬â¢s generation. Perhaps our aim is to prepare children who grow up to be like von Gestel, with the same rich resources at hand for creating meaningful experiences: Music (and especially making and teaching music) was and is a part of my everyday life, and really I canÃ¢â¬â¢t imagine a life without singing together and making music. It makes my life worth living. References Bjorkvold, J. R. 1992. The muse within: Creativity and communication, song and play from childhood through maturity. Trans. W. H. Halverso n, New York: HarperCollins. Campbell, P. S. 2007. Musical meaning in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s cultures. In International handbook of research in arts education, ed.L. Bresler, 881Ã¢â¬â94. Dorderecht, The Netherlands: Springer. Dissanayake, E. 2000. Art and intimacy. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Littleton, D. 1998. Music learning and childÃ¢â¬â¢s play. General Music Today 12 (1): 8Ã¢â¬â15. Marsh, K. 1995. ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s singing games: Composition in the playground? Research Studies in Music Education 4:2Ã¢â¬â11. Moorhead, G. E. , and D. Pond. 1941. Music of young children. 1 Chant. Santa Barbara, CA: Pillsbury Foundation for the Advancement of Music Education. Papousek, H. 1996. Musicality in infancy research: Biological and cultural origins of early musicality.In Musical beginnings: Origins and development of musical competence, ed. I. Deliege and J. Sloboda, 37Ã¢â¬â55. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Smith, D. C. 1991. Foundations of modern Chinese e ducation. In The Confucian continuum, ed. D. C. Smith, 1Ã¢â¬â64. New York: Praeger. Trevarthen, C. 1999. Musicality and the intrinsic motive pulse: Evidence from psychobiology and human communication. Musicae Scientiae (Special Issue: Rhythm, Musical Narrative, and Origins of Human Communication), 155Ã¢â¬â211. Lori A. Custodero is an associate professor and program coordinator of the MusicDownloaded by [Macquarie University] at 14:58 28 March 2013 and Music Education program at Teachers College, Columbia University, where she has established an early childhood music concentration that integrates pedagogy and research through both theory and practice. She served on the International Society for Music EducationÃ¢â¬â¢s Commission for Early Childhood for six years and is involved in research and teaching projects in a variety of countries. Lily Chen-Hafteck is an associate professor of music education and assistant chair of the Music Department at Kean University, New Jersey.Ori ginally from Hong Kong, she has held teaching and research positions at the University of Pretoria in South Africa, the University of Surrey Roehampton in England, and Hong Kong Baptist University. She serves on the editorial board of the International Journal of Music Education, Asia-Pacific Journal for Arts Education and Music Education Research International. She is the chair of the International Society for Music Education Young Professionals Focus Group. Vol. 109, No. 3, January/February 2008 7 Downloaded by [Macquarie University] at 14:58 28 March 2013 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Sunday, January 5, 2020
INTRODUCTION: Some countries are called islamic states as they are based upon the shariah laws-here the religious laws are the laws of the state and it is applied on everyone, regardless of their religion. Shariah means straight path and provides both rules and punishment. It is based on the quran and sunnah that its believe to be relevant for life time. Some times there are times when secular laws have been wrong that is when the basic human rights are not met. Sometimes secular laws and religious laws conflict and then it is left for the individual to think through their conscience and make a decision. Often religious leaders have been in the front line campaigning for those who do not have the basic human rights, or who face serious discrimination and prejudice. AUTHORITY: Authority is the body whose mission is explicating judgements, as we as rulings, of the divine Islamic doctrine. Such as expliacation must not be attained by supposition and conjecture. It must be attained by such a way of certitude and conviction that it must be identical to the divine intendment. Applying so the believers will be accepting this explication of the doctrinal authority as an intellectual or invariable fact that can be taken as a conceptional base or a path upon which ideas are strucuted or march is commenced. In this lifetime the propher peace be upon hum and his family is the authority of the muslims to whom they refer in the doctrinal affairs, and whose words are the decesiveShow MoreRelatedUnited Equality: The Failures of the United Nations Humans Rights Laws850 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesguidelines meant to be applied in every area of the world; one of which is the policy of human rights, created in 1948. The United NationsÃ¢â¬â¢ set of human rights values should be in place in every nation in the world. Unfortunately, women in Islamic countries such as Iran and Indonesia are violations of the human rights laws set down by the UN. 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